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Ocean Models

Ocean model characteristics

Described below are the OGCMs (Oceanic General Circulation Models) the OceanPredict systems are running, as well as their domain, resolution, levels and atmospheric forcing.

System OGCM Domain Horizontal Resolution Vertical Sampling Atmospheric Forcing
Australia – BLUElink> – updated 2014
BLUElink> OFAM2 Regional/Global (0-360E, 75S-75N (90-180E, 75S-16N) 1/10° between 90-180E and 75S-16N; coarser elsewhere [email protected]; [email protected] m; coarser elsewhere ACCESS-G (APS1)
BLUElink> OFAM3 as above 1/10° around Australia [email protected]; [email protected] m; coarser elsewhere ACCESS-G (APS1)
BLUElink> OFAM2 (Reanalysis-BRAN) and OFAM3 (Reanalysis-BRAN) as above as above as above ERA-Interim; prescribed fluxes
BLUElink> Tasman Sea MOM not provided not provided not provided ERA-Interim; prescribed fluxes
Canada – CONCEPTS – updated Oct 2019
CONCEPTS Global NEMO 3.1 Global 1/4° 50 z-levels Fully coupled to 10km atmosphere (CCMEP GEM model)
CONCEPTS Regional NEMO 3.1 Regional: Arctic & North Atlantic 1⁄4°, 1/12°, 1/36° 50 z-levels CCMEP Regional Deterministic Prediction System – hourly
CONCEPTS – Gulf of St Lawrence NEMO 3.1 Gulf of St Lawrence 5 km 35 z-levels Fully coupled at every timestep to CCMEP Global Deterministic Prediction System; Hourly CCMEP
CONCEPTS  Wave WW3 v5.16 Wave 1/4° 36 bins of frequency and 36 bins of direction Hourly CCMEP
CONCEPTS Dalcoast Dalcoast v.5 Regional Deterministic Surge Prediction System (RDSPS) 1/30° 2D barotropic
USA – ECCO group – updated Oct 2019
ECCO MITgcm Global and regional domains From 1° (LLC90, ECCO central production), 18km (ECCO2), down to 2 km (LLC4320) 50 to 100 z-levels ERA-Interim (ECCOv4r3) or JRA-55
UK/Europe – ECMWF – updated Nov 2020
ECMWF NEMO V3.4 Global 1⁄4° 75 levels, 1m-1.5m thickness upper levels Bulk formulation including wave forcing

ERA-Interim from 19790101 to 20151231

ECMWF NWP from 20160101 to present

ECMWF operational NWP since 2010

UK – FOAM – updated Nov 2020
FOAM NEMO Global; regional in N. Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean; shelf-seas in the NW European Shelf Seas (NWS) 1⁄12° global, and 1⁄12°regionally and 1.5km shelf-seas 75 z-levels (global) and 50 z-levels (regional), all with 1m resolution in the top 10m of the ocean. 50 σ-coordinate levels in the shelf-seas 3 hourly surface heat and freshwater forcing, with 1 hourly winds, from Met Office NWP system

A global coupled atmosphere/land/ocean/sea-ice forecasting system with the same ocean resolution is also run operationally, with atmosphere resolution of ~40km.

A global coupled NWP system with coupled data assimilation, 10km atmospheric/land resolution and ¼º ocean/sea-ice resolution will be implemented operationally during 2021.

USA – HYCOM/NCODA and GOFS – updated Oct 2019
HYCOM/ NCODA GOFS HYCOM Global 1⁄12.5° 32 hybrid coordinate surfaces T359L50 Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) (v. 1.2)
India – INDOFOS – updated Oct 2018
INCOIS-GODAS MOM5.1 Global 0.5° x 0.25° with in 10°S – 10°N and 0.5° x 0.5° beyond 30° 40 levels Operational atmospheric prediction system from the NCMRWF (National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (NCMRWF), New Delhi
INDOFOS ROMS v3.7 Indian Ocean 1/12° / 1/12 40 levels Operational atmospheric prediction system from the NCMRWF (National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (NCMRWF), New Delhi
HOOFS ROMS v3.7 Local Indian Ocean regions 1/48° x 1/48° (~2.25 x 2.25 km) 40 levels Operational atmospheric prediction system from the NCMRWF (National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (NCMRWF), New Delhi
ITOPS HYCOM Global & Indian Ocean nested to Global 0.25° x 0,25° (ITOPS-Global) and 0.0625° x 0.0625° (ITOPS-IO) 29 levels GFS 0.25° x 0.25°
South Korea – operational ocean forecasting systems – updated Nov 2020
KOOFS (North Pacific) ROMS Northwest Pacific (NPACIFIC) 0.25° 30 σ-levels NCOP GFS (NOAA)
KOOFS (YES) ROMS The Yellow and East China Sea 3 km 41 σ-levels Hourly surface fluxes from WRF
KOOFS (East Sea) ROMS East Sea 3 km 41 σ-levels Hourly surface fluxes from WRF
KOOFS (Korea Strait) ROMS Korea Strait 1.5 km 20 σ-levels Hourly surface fluxes from WRF
KOOFS (West Coastal Zone Model) ROMS West coastal zone of Korea 1 km 30 σ-levels Hourly surface fluxes from WRF
KOOFS (Southwest Coastal Zone Model) ROMS South coastal zone of Korea 1 km 30 σ-levels Hourly surface fluxes from WRF
KOOFS (Ulleungdo Coastal Model) ROMS Ulleungdo of Korea 1 km 41 σ-levels Hourly surface fluxes from WRF
KOOFS (Ulleungdo-Dokdo sub-coastal model) ROMS Ulleungdo & Dokodo of Korea 0.3 km 41 σ-levels Hourly surface fluxes from WRF
KOOFS_OPEM GFDL-MOM5 Northwest Pacific 1/24° 51 layers (z-star coordinate) 6-hourly surface fluxes from ECMWF ERA INTERIM data (201501-201702)/KMA GDAPS (201703-)
Coastal KOOS MOHID Seas adjacent to the Korean Peninsula (L2 and L3) 1/48° (L2) and 1/288° (L3) 40 layers (8 sigma-levels and 32 z-levels) Hourly surface fluxes from the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model, with 3D-VAR cycling
France – Mercator Ocean International – updated Jan 2021
GLO12 and BIO4 real time forecasting system NEMO. PISCES biogeochemical component is coupled to the
system in an offline mode and at lower resolution (1/4°)
Global 1⁄12° 50 vertical levels, 1m at the surface ECMWF
IBI36 real time forecasting system NEMO. PISCES biogeochemical component is coupled online
at the same resolution
Iberian Biscay and Irish Seas (IBI) 1⁄36° 50 vertical levels, 1m at the surface ECMWF
Italy – Mediterranean Forecasting System – updated Nov 2020
GOFS16 Analysis and Forecast System NEMO v3.4 Global 1/16° 98 vertical levels 6-h, daily with 0.25° horizontal-res NCEP
C-GLORSv7 Reanalysis System NEMO v3.6  Global 1/4° 75 vertical levels 6-h, 0.75° horizontal-res ERA-interim
MedFS Analysis and Forecast System NEMO v3.6 Mediterranean Sea extended in the Atlantic Ocean 1/24° 141 vertical levels 1/3/6-h, 0.1° horizontal-res ECMWF
MedFS Reanalysis System NEMO v3.6 Mediterranean Sea extended in the Atlantic Ocean 1/24° 141 levels 1-h, 0.25° horizontal-res ERA interim
MedBFM Analysis and Forecast Biogeochemical System OGSTM-BFM (offline coupled with MFS system) Mediterranean Sea 1/24° 141 (125 active) vertical levels 3/6-h, 0.125° horizontal-res ECMWF
MedBFM Reanalysis System OGSTM-BFM (offline coupled with MFS system) Mediterranean Sea 1/24° 141 (125 active) vertical levels 3/6-h, 0.125° horizontal-res ECMWF
Japan – MOVE/MRI.COM – updated Nov 2020
MOVE/MRI.COM-G2 MRI.COM version 3 Global 1° x 0.5 ° 50 levels JRA55 (JMA’s Operational analysis and Reanalysis) and NWP output
Japan area system: MOVE/MRI.COM-JPN MRI.COM version 4 [Forecast model] Japan area (JPN)
[Analysis model] North Pacific (NP)
(JPN) 1/33° x 1/50°
(NP) 1/10° x 1/11°
60 levels GSM (real-time analysis and forecast) and JRA55 (delayed mode analysis)
Global system: MOVE/MRI.COM-G3 MRI.COM version 4 Global Analysis model] 1° x 0.5°
[Forecast model] 0.25° x 0.25°
60 levels JRA55-do (JRA55-based forcing adjusted for driving ocean; Tsujino et al.
2018)
China – NMEFC – updated Nov 2020
Global Ocean Forecasting system NEMO Global 1/12° 75 levels, 20 levels in upper 200m GFS 6-hourly and ECMWF
Regional – Northwest Pacific ROMS Northwest Pacific 1/20° (1/36) 30 σ-levels (36 σ-levels) 6-hourly surface fluxes from NMEFCWRF / NCEP GFS / CFSR
Regional – Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea ROMS Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea 1/30° 30 σ-levels 6-hourly surface fluxes from NMEFC WRF / NCEP GFS / NCEP CFSR
Regional – South China Sea ROMS South China Sea 1/30° 36 σ-levels 6-hourly surface fluxes from NMEFC WRF / NCEP GFS / NCEP CFSR
Regional – Bohai Sea ROMS Bohai Sea 1/60° 30 σ-levels 6-hourly surface fluxes from NMEFC WRF / NCEP GFS / NCEP CFSR
Regional – North Indian Ocean ROMS North Indian Ocean 1/12° 30 σ-levels 6-hourly surface fluxes from NCEP GFS / CFSR
The atmosphere-ocean coupled typhoon forecast system ROMS Northwest Pacific 15 km 40 σ-levels Sea surface stresses and heat fluxes from WRF results / CFSR
Brazil – REMO – updated May 2021
REMO- HYCOM 1/4 Regional HYCOM 78°S-55°N
100°W-20°E excluding the Pacific
1/4° 21 hybrid layers NCEP GFS 0.25° 3-hourly
REMO- HYCOM 1/12 Regional HYCOM 56°S-10°N
67°W-18°W
1/12° 21 hybrid layers CHM COSMO with 0.1° resolution
REMO- HYCOM 1/24 Regional HYCOM 35°S-12°S
54°W-32°W
1/24° 21 hybrid layers CHM COSMO with 0.1° resolution
USA – RTOFS (Real-Time Ocean Forecast System) – updated May 2021
RTOFS HYCOM Global 1/12° at equator 41 hybrid layers NCEP (GFS) 3-hourly, HWRF (Hurricane WRF)
RTOFS HYCOM North Atlantic 1/12° rotated grid with 4-6km resolution as US coast 26 hybrid layers
RTOFS HYCOM North Atlantic, East Pacific and Western North Pacific 1/12° 32 hybrid layers
Norway – Regional Arctic + North Atlantic physical ice-ocean near-real-time forecast system – updated May 2021
TOPAZ HYCOM North Atlantic (from 10S) – Arctic (until Bering Strait) 12 km (between 1/8th and 1/6th) 28 hybrid z-isopycnal layers ECMWF 0.1 deg resolution

Data Assimilation characteristics

Data assimilation is a valuable method applied in ocean models combining observation data and the dynamical physics governing the prediction system to provide an estimate of the state of the ocean which is better than could be obtained using just the data or the model alone.

Assimilation Scheme SST SSH Other
Australia – BLUElink> – updated 2014
BODASv8.3

BODAS

WindSAT, NAVO (AVHRR), NOAA-18, MetopA,, NOAA-19

AMSR-E, Pathfinder, NAVO

Jason2, Cryosat-2, SARAL/AltiKa IGDR data streams

Along-track altimetry (all altimeters)

Adaptive Non-linear Dynamical Initialisation (T,S,u,v,η)
Canada – CONCEPTS – updated Oct 2019
Regional: SAM2 (SEEK); Ice 3DVar-FGAT ((5km analysis grid)

Global Ocean: SAM2 (similar to Mercator – PSY3V2R2); Ice: 3DVar-FGAT (10km)

Gulf of St Lawrence: Ice: Direct insertion of RadarSAT image analyses from the Canadian Ice Service

CCMEP SST Analysis (0.2deg OI) AVISO Coriolis/CLS (in situ T&S) as well as sea ice data from satellite sources (AMSR, AVHRR, MODIS, Radarsat) and ship reports.
USA – ECCO group – updated Oct 2019
Adjoint, Kalman filter/smoother, Green’s function AMSR-E, TMI, AVHRR Along-track TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason1 & -2, ENVISAT, GFO, ERS-1 & -2, tide gauges XBT, CTD, Argo, TOGA-TAO, SSM/I (sea ice), GRACE, scatterometers, sea surface salinity, Florida Current transport
UK/Europe – ECMWF – updated Nov 2020
NEMOVAR HadISST2 v2 pentad ¼ degree until 2008, and OSTIA thereafter AVISO along track sea level anomalies and global maps SIC: OSTIA reanalysis until 2008, OSTIA operational thereafter

CTD,Argo,Moorings from the EN4 (XBT corrected) data set until 2016 and from the GTS thereafter

UK – FOAM – updated Nov 2020
NEMOVAR (3DVar-FGAT) GHRSST data including AVHRR from NOAA and MetOp. Also in situ surface data from ships, moored buoys and drifting buoys Along-track satellite altimeter data from Aviso, including Jason-2 and Cryosat-2 data SIC: SSMIS sea-ice concentration data from EUMETSAT OSI-SAF

All available in situ temperature and salinity data including XBTs, Argo, CTDs, moored buoys, gliders, marine mammals;

USA – HYCOM/NCODA and GOFS – updated Oct 2019
Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA): 3DVAR NOAA-18, NOAA-19, METOP-A, METOP-B, GOES-13, GOES-15, MSG, COMS-1, MTSAT-2, WindSAT, NPP-VIIRS, drifting buoys, fixed buoys, ships (ERI, bucket, hull contact) Jason-2, Altika, Cryosat-2 In situ profiles, (Argo, gliders, XBTs, fixed and drifting buoys, CTDs), sea ice concentration (SSM/I, SSMIS).
India – INDOFOS – updated Oct 2018
INCOIS-GODAS: 3D-Var
INDOFOS: LETKF
HOOFS: no assimilation ITOPS: (Tendral Statistical Interpolation Scheme) T-SIS
Weekly Reynolds SST (GODAS) AVISO (HyCOM) T,S profiles (ARGO, XBT, XCTD, moored buoys) in GODAS
France – Mercator Ocean International – updated Jan 2021
SAM2 SEEK filter including 3Dvar large scale bias correction OSTIA SST delivered by CMEMS, one map per week is assimilated Along track Sea Level anomaly from all available satellites
delivered by CMEMS. In 2019, S3b was included in the system
In-situ temperature and salinity profiles from CMEMS

Sea ice concentration maps delivered by CMEMS (GLO12 andBIO4)

Ocean Color maps delivered by CMEMS (GLO12 and BIO4)

Italy – Mediterranean Forecasting System – updated Nov 2020
CMCC: GOFS16 and C-GLORYSv7

OceanVar (3dvar)

 

L3 AVHRR and AMRS2 data. Heat flux correction (SST Reynold OI)

C-GLORSv7 Reanalysis: Nudging to the SST is performed

 

SLA Satellite along track data are assimilated

 

 

SSS: Correction to fresh-water flux (SSS EN4 OA)

SIC: Relaxation to SIC OI field from NOAA

T/S: T/S Vertical profiles are assimilated

C-GLORSv7: Nudging to the SIC, SIT is performed

OGS (MedFS, MedFS reanalysis, MedBFM)

OceanVar (3dvar)

 

MedBFM: 3DVarBio

 

Nudging to the SST is performed

MedBFM: Surface CHL: Surface satellite L3 map

 

SLA Satellite along track data are assimilated

MedBFM: Profiles of CHL and NO3: Vertical profiles from BGC-Argo data

 

T/S Vertical profiles are assimilated

Japan – MOVE/MRI.COM – updated Nov 2020
Global system G2 – 3DVAR-GAT

Japan Area system – 4DVAR-GAT and IAU-DST

Global System G3 – 4DVAR and IAU-DST

COBE-SST

MGDSST (JMA-GHRSTT product)

MGDSST (JMA-GHRSST product)

Along-track sea level anomalies including Jason-3, Cryosat-2, SARAL

T/P, Jason-1,2,3, ERS-1,2, ENVISAT, GFO, Cryosat-2, SARAL, HY-2A, and Sentinel-3A

Temperature and Salinity profiles from GTS (Argo floats and tropical moorings are included.)

Temperature and Salinity profiles from GTS (Argo floats are included), Sea Ice concentration from SSM/I and SSMIS

China – NMEFC – updated Nov 2020
Global: NEMO: LESTKF

Regional – NW Pacific: EnOI for SLA, 3DVar for SST and T/S profiles

Regional – Bohai Sea, Yelloe Sea, E China Sea: EnOI for SST

Regional – S China Sea: EnOI for SST and SLA

Regional- Bohai Sea: Nudging for SST

Regional – N Indian Ocean: EnOI for SST and SLA

Regional – NW Pacific: EnOI

OSTIA SST

MGDSST or OSTIA

 

MGDSST

 

MGDSST or OSTIA

 

MGDSST

MGDSST or OSTIA

 

IOSST

Sea level anomaly from CLS

Gridded sea level anomaly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Along-track sea level anomaly from CLS, including Jason-2/3, Altika, Cryosat-2, Sentinel-3a data.

T&S Argo profiles, XBT

T/S profiles from Argo floats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Argo T/S profile

Brazil – REMO – updated May 2021
EnOI and Cooper and Haines OSTIA Along-track SLA NRT CMEMS/AVISO L3 Argo T/S vertical profiles
USA – RTOFS (Real-Time Ocean Forecast System) – updated May 2021
NRL / NAVOCEANO NCODA (See USA-HYCOM for details), 2+1DVar See USA-HYCOM See USA-HYCOM See USA-HYCOM
Norway – Regional Arctic + North Atlantic physical ice-ocean near-real-time forecast system – updated May 2021
DEnKF (Sakov and Oke 2008), 100 dynamical members L4 data from CMEMS SST TAC (OSTIA) Along track SLA from CMEMS SL TAC Ice concentrations: SSM/I from CMEMS SI TAC (OSI-SAF),

In-situ: Temp and Salinity profiles from CMEMS Arctic in-situ TAC (including Argo floats, CTD sections, ITPs),

Other: Sea ice drift from CMEMS SI TAC (OSI SAF product)

Routine system set-ups

The table below describes the forecast range the OceanPredict systems can deliver as well as their update frequency and hindcast length.

System Forecast range Update frequency Hindcast length Ensemble forecast
BLUElink>

latest update from 2014

7 days (OFAM2) Daily, 4-cycle system 4 days

Renalysis, 4 day hindcast (1992-2010)

CONCEPTS 10 days Daily (regional) 2002-present
ECCO group
N/A N/A  N/A
ECMWF

latest update from 2014

Different ranges: 18-days (daily), 32-days (weekly), and 7-months (monthly) Daily for the real time

Every 5 days for the delayed product

19570901 to present
FOAM

latest update from 2014

7 days Daily 2-day hindcast every day
HYCOM/NCODA (GOFS) 7 days Daily 4 days
INDOFOS 5 days Daily (ROMS) 1 day (ROMS)
Mercator Ocean
Weekly for a 2-week forecast (respectively a 1-week forecast)  with PSY2 and PSY3 (respectively PSY4 and BIOMER4)

Every day a 1-week forecast is produced with PSY2, PSY3 and PSY4 and a 5-day forecast with IBI36

Analysis is produced every week and the forecasts are updated every day taking into account the update of the atmospheric forcing 2-week of hindcast are produced every week
MFS

latest update from 2014

10 days Daily (MFS-currents), twice a week (MFS-biogeochemistry) 24hr (once a week 15 days ) for MFS-currents, 7-days MFS-biogeochemistry
MOVE/MRI.COM Western North Pacific: 30 days; Global (CGCM for seasonal-ElNino forecast): 7 months 5 days Global & North Pacific (1948-2014+), Western North Pacific (1993-2014+), Japan & Seto (2014+)
NMEFC 7days, 5 days, reanalysis (monthly) Daily, twice daily 1 day
REMO 6 day (Regional 1/4)
5 days (Regional 1/12)
4 days (Regional 1/24)
Daily, analysis every 5 days None
RTOFS 8 days (Global)
6 days (North Atlantic)
5 days (North Atlantic, East Pacific and Western North Pacific)
Daily and 6 hourly 2-day spin up from Navy initialisation
TOPAZ Out to 10 days Weekly assimilation (with daily update of atmospheric forcing) 1 week 10 members

 

 

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